proactive-interference

12+ Proactive & Retroactive Interference Theory Examples

In this post, we’re going to illustrate proactive interference examples and retro interference examples to explain both concepts and theories as clearly as possible. But first, let’s take a step back.

Have you ever wondered how your subconscious mind works? What happens to old memories when new ones are made? Well, one thing’s for sure: the mind works in mysterious ways.

But to answer our question, we’ll have to discuss two very important theories: the proactive interference and retroactive interference theory.

 

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What is the Proactive and Retroactive Interference Theory?

The interference theory discusses the interaction between past behavior and newly learned material. This includes thoughts and memories that cause conflicts in the restoration of memories.

These theories are based on the efforts required to recall past or recent memories. Inference theory can be categorized into two main types namely proactive interference theory and retroactive interference theory.

 

 

What is Proactive Interference?

Proactive interference occurs when old memories limit one’s capacity to recall new information. You’ve probably already witnessed this phenomenon when trying to recall phone numbers.

For instance, the old number you have had for several years can proactively interfere the process of remembering your new phone number.

Proactive Interference Examples

To help you get a better idea, here are some examples of proactive interference:

  1. When the aisles of a shopping mart are changed, you may instinctively start walking towards the old shelves instead of the new ones.
  2. You’ve probably learned of the old saying, you can’t teach an old dog new tricks. Well, that primarily happens because canines find it difficult to unlearn or prevent prior knowledge from getting in the way of new skills.
  3. Another common example is how some people still remember married women by their maiden names as opposed to their new last name.
  4. Proactive interference may also get in the way of performing physical tasks. For example, your hands may have a hard time adjusting to a new keyboard once you have started using a new one.
  5. Kids who pick up a bad habit may have a difficult time getting rid of it. For instance, if a child is taught to solve a math problem the wrong way, they may have trouble following new instructions.
  6. When children return to school after summer vacations, they often have trouble keeping up with their new schedule. For instance, they may find it difficult to get up in the morning.
  7. Once promoted to a new class, students may find it difficult to adjust themselves to their new schedule. For instance, students may find themselves accidentally running to their old classroom.

What is Retroactive Interference?

Retroactive interference is when new memories restrain one’s capacity to recall old information. This makes it difficult for users to recall old material.

Retroactive Interference Examples

To help you gain a better insight, here are few simple examples of retroactive interference theories that you will benefit from:

  1. Some folks have a hard time driving a manually operated car because they have recently started driving an automatic one.
  2. Suppose you’ve spent the entire summer learning French and the next couple of months learning Italian. Though, both the languages are quite similar, you may start confusing Italian for French because of your previous knowledge. This is a clear example of retroactive interference that occurs when newly attained information constrains our ability to process previously acquired information.
  3. Singers sometimes find it difficult to recall old song lyrics because of all the new songs they have learned.
  4. Suppose a brand has revamped their look with new color schemes and campaigns. In this case, customers may find it difficult to recall the brand’s old layout because of their new design.
  5. Some kids may have a tough time recalling old stories once they start reading new books. At times, they may also end up mixing two or more stories together.
  6. You may remember your current password but may not be able to recall your old one.

How can marketers use retroactive interference?

Retroactive interference basically involves unlearning. As programmers jump from one programming language to another, they’re actually forgetting previously learned information.

This is a form of conscious learning. However, in order to succeed, marketers need to focus on making potential consumers unlearn things unconsciously. PR agencies also use this strategy to distract people in the event of a crisis with unconscious unlearning.

Conclusion

Hopefully, this detailed guide has provided you all the information you need about proactive and retroactive interference. For more details, don’t hesitate to check out similar blogs from our psychology section.

Picture Credits: NewStatesMan

remembering-things

Remembering Things Quickly: 10+ Ways to Get Better

Remembering things is not as difficult, as we tend to believe sometimes. And struggling to remember things could be an outcome of the number of reasons we described the other day.

Even though, there are a few skills that do not require any retention in your memory past a certain age. For instance, geometry, physics, or maybe just something as simple as dissecting a cockroach (maybe it’s not as simple for everyone) that you learnt in school.

But sadly, memorization and the ability to remember things, is not one of those many instances. It is way ahead of the tests you appeared for in school.

On an honest note, your memory can either save you, or put you in weird situations. Just imagine! You were to meet someone very important at let’s say, a party. And you forgot what his name was! Well, that would get awkward quite quickly.

Hence the ability of remembering things is quite a blessing that we forget to count.

Memory is a very important aspect of adulthood, for it enables you to enrich your life. From remembering things like the seasons to football statistics, which can be a big deal for the die-hard fans, to learning different languages.

But, one thing should be kept in mind for sure. In order to be good at remembering things, you need to practice and follow a certain lifestyle and an an effort to stay conscious.

Don’t worry, just keep reading because you are about to get quite a bit of information on how to sharpen your memory that will help you in remembering things quickly.

 

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How To Remember Things Quickly

#1 Take a quick guess!

One of the most appropriate ways of remembering things is to guess the meaning of the word you are about to memorize before you even know it. You would probably end up being wrong, but the act of just guessing means that you are almost there.

Because when the answer would be disclosed to you, you would remember it better compared to knowing it without any guesses. It generally works for names as well.

Guess a person’s name before meeting them and you would remember it better.

 

#2 Keep repeating again, and then again, and maybe a few more times

The key to remembering things is repetition. But, another innovation known as “mega drilling” has been proven to be very powerful. This technique says that you should repeat whatever you are trying to memorize at least thirty times.

So, if you meet someone new, just recall their name at least thirty times and you would not forget it the next time you see them.

 

#3 Mnemonics

Using a mnemonic helps you in remembering things better. Whatever new word you come across, just think of any rhyme or sentence that sounds similar and you will remember it better.

Just like the famous episode of Hannah Montana, where she made a song out of the 206 bones in her body. It helps you in connecting words with the knowledge that is already in your mind.

Plus the quality of the memory is a lot better that way.

 

#4 Study during the afternoons

Even if you are a morning or night person, it has been proven that those who prefer studying during the afternoons have a better learning capacity compared to those who do not.

Focusing on a task during the day has a greater effect on the long term memory as well.

 

#5 Just Relax!

One of the techniques of remembering things quickly is to take a break in between. Do not exert yourself, just relax. Even if you want to stare at the wall for a few minutes in the middle of your study breaks, do it?

The process of gazing at the wall would definitely prevent you from getting anxious, calms you down and relaxes your brain. It also creates space for new memory later.

Giving time to short breaks and resting can actually make you faster when it comes to the long run.

 

#6 Picture it!

It might sound a little weird, but it is one of the most effective ways when it comes to remembering things. Visualize whatever you are learning to take your ability to remember things to the next level.

Let’s say you are reading about a tragic accident. Picture it in your mind, as to how it must be and you would never forget it. It probably sounds berserk right now, but it works. Really.

 

#7 Exercise

It is about time we accept the fact that exercise is the solution to every problem, and memory is nothing different. Exercise increases the oxygen supply and cell growth, in those parts of your brain which are responsible for memorization.

 

#8 Sleep enough!

We all have pulled out an all-nighter at some point in our lives, right before an important exam or test. But most of us are unaware of the fact that even if we cram on our books till the last minute, a good night’s sleep is tremendously important.

Studies prove that the process of sleep during the night helps you in remembering things better and keeps your mind active the next day. Your brain is bombarded with stimulus when you are awake, and uses the time you are sleeping to process everything.

Basically it clears out all the unnecessary information and doubles down on remembering things that are important.

 

#9 Concentrate for 8 seconds!

In today’s time it is all about rushing with everything, wanting them to be very fast. That is the reason why this advice might be of no value to many but when you need to remember something, concentrate on it with full attention for at least eight seconds.

It might sound like a long time, especially if you are in a rush or running out of time, trying to get something done, but it is worth the time. Studies prove that it is the minimum amount of time that is required to take information from your short to long term memory.

 

#10 Chew gum!

Chewing bubble gum for around thirty minutes helps a person in remembering things. Studies prove that people memorize better when they chew gum while doing so. Just the act of chewing gum makes people focus better and improve their concentration.

 

#11 Write it down!

Writing down whatever you are trying to memorize literally does wonders. It helps you in remembering things way better compared to repeating it just verbally or in your head. Furthermore, studies prove that taking down notes on a piece of paper is a lot better than tying it on your computer.

remembering-things

10 Reasons Why Remembering Things Becomes Difficult

If you’re having difficulty in remembering things, it may just be due to a distracted state of mind. There may not be anything mentally wrong with you. We suggest that you don’t jump to conclusions, and read further.

So, have you ever gotten that lost feeling of forgetting what you came here for when you walk into a room? And had trouble remembering where you left your wallet or in remembering people’s names, and you’re just like, “hey! I met this person just a month back, but I just can’t recall his name.”

Although these situations might make us feel very senile, you do not have to live with it forever. It is just a case of brain fog!

If you have never experienced any problems in remebering things, names, dates, or places, you are one heck of a lucky person. Majority experience this one time or another throughout their lifetime, whereas some experience it quite often.

The ability to focus vanishes and you just can’t think clearly. Making you feel like a fog mentally, there are tons of reasons why remembering things can be very difficult at times.

 

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Reasons That Make Remembering Things Difficult

 

#1 Hormone Deficiencies

Since the brain requires tremendous amounts of energy, those people who have hormone deficiencies have trouble in remembering things. Hypothyroidism causes a decline in a person’s mental capabilities due to a slowed down metabolism and less energy.

It gets very hard to focus on what you are doing, and maintenance of a sharp memory. Low thyroid levels is one of the most common causes of memory loss and depression.

Whereas estrogen, testosterone and progesterone act on the brain’s nerve cells directly, protecting from neurotoxic attacks and free radicals. enhancing the flow of blood in the brain, they protect the brain from loss of memory, cognition and most commonly dementia.

Both progesterone and estrogen affect memory strongly and improve the retention of memory, hence making it easier in remembering things for a person.

So, the absence of any of these hormones ruins a persons capability of remembering things.

 

#2 Poor Sleep or Lack of Sleep

Poor sleeping habits make you feel tired, hence making your brain also tired enough to not function properly. The National Sleep Foundation’s recommends around seven to nine hours of sleep every night. It might sound very easy to do, but in reality it is not.

However a lot of people have difficulties in remembering things, because they just do not sleep enough each night.

 

#3 Candida

The health of your gut deeply affects the health of your brain. The overgrowth of yeast or candida can cause inability to concentrate hence difficulty in remembering things, leading to anxiety, depression and frequent headaches.

If your gut is leaky, over two-hundred candida can travel throughout your body via your bloodstream, affecting different organs of your body, including your brain.

 

#4 Poor Diet

It is necessary to have a clean diet, along with incorporation of healthy fruits and vegetable in your daily meals. Vegetables have numerous antioxidants and vitamins which help in fighting against stress, eventually preventing brain damage.

One must religiously eat enough protein and healthy fats. Processed and packed foods do not provide enough nutrients to the brain, so remembering things can be a task when the dietary needs of your brain are not sufficient enough.

 

#5 Allergies

Allergies and inflammation can adversely affect the brain, causing bodily symptoms such as migraines, anxiety, headaches and most importantly, loss of memory.

 

#6 Mineral and Vitamin Deficiencies

Besides a healthy diet, a few of these vitamins are very necessary for the brain, which help people in remembering things.

  • Fish Oil- Supports the natural inflammatory response of the body
  • Ginkgo Biloba- Clinically proven to be be high in anti-oxidants
  • GABA- Helps in the regulation of the brain’s nerve cells activity, leading to a better focus
  • B Vitamins- Helps in the promotion of optimal nerve health and brain function.

 

#7 Prescribed Drugs

Numerous prescription drugs also affect the brain in a negative way, which might hinder a person in remembering things.

  • Anti-Anxiety Drugs
  • Cholesterol Drugs
  • Medications for Sleep
  • Antihistamines
  • Antidepressants
  • Painkillers that are narcotic
  • Beta-Blockers
  • Medications for the common cold
  • Some painkillers
  • Muscle Relaxants

 

#8 Smoking

Smoking has a very adverse effect on the brain. It decreases the amount of oxygen that is needed by the brain, which can impair a person’s memory leading to difficulties in remembering things.

It has also been noted down that one of the adverse effects of smoking is shrinking of the cortex, which is a very critical part of your brain.

The outer layer of the brain, cortex, naturally thins as you grow older but smoking generally accelerates this process.

 

#9 Being Inactive Physically

Regular exercises helps in protecting a person’s memory and keeping the brain sharp. It also helps in the improvement of mood, sleep and reduces stress. These things help in improving the function of the brain, thus helping people in remembering things easily.

 

#10 Artificial Sweeteners

Many people think that eating artificial sweeteners is going to prevent them from a lot of diseases, but in reality, you should think multiple times before going for the blue or yellow packets of sweeteners at the food table.

Artificial sweeteners have a very devastating effect on your brain and overall health as well.

These sweeteners can cause brain fog, spaced out sensations, migraines, seizures, headaches and lot more. The neurotoxin in many of these sweeteners can destroy the brain cells.

A lot of these break down into aspartic acid which is literally death to the brain, causing epileptic seizures, migraines, headaches and most importantly a serious effect on your brain which will make you face difficulties in remembering things.

 

How to remember things quickly?

After reading the causes of impaired memory, you might have realized why it is so difficult for you at times when it comes to remembering things. The reasons are simple, either poor diet, a medical condition, or maybe just something just as simple as a medication for a headache.

It is very easy to fix these problems. All you have to do is avoid things that prevent your brain from functioning properly.

Most of all, our memory is not as poor as we think or imagine. It is not a computer and it cannot function like one either. But that is what makes the experience fascinating!

 

list-of-character-traits

List of 31+ Character Traits & Examples to Inspire Positivity

Have you ever been asked by someone to describe a list of character traits that you possess? Or may be that asked you to describe your personality in a few words?

If yes. Were you be able to do it?

It’s okay if you were not able to. Because, it can be very difficult to perceive your own list of character traits, and expressing them openly in front of the world.

 

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Detemining the List of Character Traits that You Possess

Considering the fact that you have never really taken a personality trait test, or read about what your personality might be like, you probably rely on other’s list of character traits about you.

 

  • “He’s very debonair.”
  • “She can be very bossy at times.”
  • “Why is he always so uptight?”
  • “Her demeanor is so calming.”

 

Descriptions like these by others make our list of character traits, which is the believed to be our personality. These character traits form perceptions. And perceptions can be biased or unbiased. But mostly biased.

As the time goes by, we get to know different things about ourselves, which can be interestingly shocking at the same time. We learn about our priorities, our reactions to certain situations, and the way we socialize with the people in our surroundings.

 

 

list-of-character-traits

 

If we start paying attention to all of these things, we would learn more about ourselves. Focusing on our actions and words would help us come up with a list of character traits, recognizing more qualities that build up our personality.

How Character Traits Evolve

Generally, one’s personality comprises of a number of monotonous patterns, emotions, characters and thoughts.

That is what makes us different from the rest of the world. It evolves from every individual, staying consistent throughout life.

Researches suggest that personalities are also an influence of one’s biological needs and processes.

 

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List of Character & Personality Traits

Tremendous theories talk about how a person’s personality is. It is believed that there are five personality traits that make up the core.

Agreeableness

The ability of a person to see eye to eye with their opponents, and being cooperative instead of being an antagonist towards others.

Extraversion

The ability to express their feelings openly in front of the world.

Neurotic-ism

Emotionally unstable, having a very low threshold when it comes to tolerating stress and anxiety.

Conscientiousness

Thoughtful individuals with a tremendous pulse control, believe in achieving their goals. Everything needs to be planned before hand for them, instead of spontaneously.

Openness

Preferring a huge variety of things in front of them. Curious, intellectual, and creative in their own way.

 

Character Traits List

If we sit down and start making a list of character traits, they would never end. In fact, if two different people start making a character traits list, they would be very different from each other.

A lot of times, a similar character trait may be described using different words. For instance, consider the words honesty and truthfulness, they both mean the same but just because the same person did not use it, they are different in their own way. Or someone might include the word intelligence in their list of character traits, but to another person it is not a trait, but an ability.

In other words, there may be a long list of character traits and the one you would read below is just one of its kinds.

  1. Attentive
  2. Alert
  3. Available
  4. Benevolent
  5. Bold
  6. Cautious
  7. Compassionate
  8. Content
  9. Creative
  10. Decisive
  11. Dependant
  12. Determined
  13. Diligent
  14. Enthusiastic
  15. Faithful
  16. Obedient
  17. Patient (Click here to read Buddha quotes)
  18. Punctual
  19. Sensitive
  20. Wise

Character Traits Examples

Before you are able to define yourself and tell the world about the kind of person you are, you need to understand your personality first. Ask yourself, “do you love what you do?”, “what is a perfect day like?”, “what brings me joy?“. the day you are able to answer these deep questions, that is the day when you truly know about your personality.

Here is a list of sample character traits that may be able to define a person’s personality, in a negative and positive way.

 

Humility

Everybody wants to be successful in what they do. They picture themselves as being humble, kind, and accepting above anything else. Having the ability to accept what their mentors or anybody in their surroundings have to say about them, in order to achieve their goals.

 

Hope

Where there is no hope, there is no success. Without this trait, one can never achieve their goals in life. After all, at the end of every tunnel, there is light, and if you stop believing and hoping in the first place, you will never be able to go up to the end and win the battle.

Challenges are an important part of life, and knowing how to tackle them will make us achieve our goals and aims.

 

Leading and Following

Being bossy would never make you get to the end, because everything would be about what you want or think. One should learn how to lead and follow at the same time, because team work eventually wins the race.

 

Respect

Respect comes above everything else in the world, If one does not respect others, even if it is someone as small as their house help, they will never get it back in return. One cannot live a happy life being envied by most of the world.

 

Serenity

It may sound very tough, but it is very important to stay calm when you are in a tough situation.

 

Proactive

Now this shows how keen you are towards your work and how well you do it before even being asked for it.

 

Endurance

In today’s time, the world is a very competitive place and it asks for endurance. Those who can achieve what they aim for even in stressful situations are the ones who would grow forward.

 

Optimism

An optimistic person spreads cheerfulness, not only for himself but it develops a positive vibe in his surroundings as well.

 

 

You can see that there are literally hundreds of character traits. In order to learn about your or someone else’s trait, all you have to do is observe them carefully.

The way they walk, the way they talk and so on. That will give you an idea on how people generally behave. It will help you in recognizing a positive or a negative character trait.

 

 

Group-Polarization

Explanation of Group Polarization with Real Life Examples

A crowd of angry football fans, often referred to as hooligans, taking extreme measures to destroy public property just because their team lost a Saturday night game. If it would have been one angry fan, his anger won’t be extreme enough to take such a measure. But because he was part of a large group, he, and hundreds others like him become a party to a public crime. This is one of several group polarization examples that we’ll expose you to, today.

Have you ever wondered how riots are caused? How a group of large crowds resort to doing something destructive collectively?

Well, trouble usually arises when an angry mob assembles and act in extreme (or polar) ways that becomes the crowd mentality. This is a high level representation of group polarization.

Below is an explanation of group polarization to help you understand the concept better.

 

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What is Group Polarization?

This phenomenon discusses how groups resort to making decisions that are more extreme in nature as compared to individual entities.

It highlights how the thoughts and actions of a group are more impactful than the views and ideas of individual team members. For instance, if the members of a group are cautious, the final decision is likely to be incredibly conservative.

Or say, if most of the group members comprise of people who indulge in risky and an extreme behaviour, the final outcome may be a destructive.

 

How does group polarization occur?

Various theorists have worked together to explain how this phenomenon takes place. The two theories mentioned below explains how the process occurs:

 

Normative Influence

According to this theory, people tend to change their ideas and opinions in a group because they want to fit in and be accepted. In fact, individuals first take out the time to analyze and evaluate groups to extract popular opinions. After doing so, individuals mimic popular behaviour or possess leadership qualities in an extreme form. The loop continues as other members of the group also follow the lead.

 

Informational Influence

This theory states that people usually gather information for both sides of an argument before entering a discussion. People are likely to alter their opinion depending on the information they have processed. This usually happens when people aren’t sure about which side to go for. People then support opinions that make more sense to them.

 

Real Life Examples of Group Polarization

To help you gain a better understanding, here are a few real-life examples of group polarization:

 

Example 1

Sally is a middle-aged woman who doesn’t like smoking because it’s unhealthy. Currently, this opinion of her’s is mild and doesn’t her normal routine. However, when Sally is placed in a group where the subject is under discussion, she is likely to respond aggressively with the other team members. Being a part of a group will strengthen Sally’s opinions which may result in drastic outcomes. For example, this may cause Sally to form a protest group to ban smoking in her workplace.

 

Example 2

Group polarization can also be observed in cyber wars and online discussions. When Pepsi posted the infamous Kendall Jenner commercial, the celebrity was instantaneously bombarded with criticism on social media. So much so that people who previously did not care much about racism were also riled up because of the ad. Research has shown that people are likely to show more adversely when they are a part of an anonymous environment and are unable to see each other face to face. Group polarization is probably why things become viral on the internet.

 

 Example 3

While there are many factors that led to the Holocaust, group holocaust is said to be among the most notable ones. Hitler used media to propagate hate speech which eventually led to the formation of many extremists groups. In its full potential, these extremists groups were capable of carrying out the most inhumane actions, something a single individual would not be able to do alone. This is why media plays an important role in propagating ideas during war-times.

 

Example 4

Have you ever wondered why there are so many human right activist groups as opposed to people who are working independently to make a difference? Well, it’s all because of group polarization. Individually, a person may hold a mild opinion about issues but when these people form a group, their opinions transpire into actions and become more powerful.

 

Example 5

The chaos caused by an angry mob is a clear example of group polarization. Being part of a group can push people into exhibiting violent behavior. Whereas most of these people probably wouldn’t be capable of mimicking the same behavior individually. This is why law enforcers try their best to break mobs to prevent further damage.

Other real-life group polarization examples include mob mentality, acts of terrorism, peer pressure and collective decisions made by a jury.

 

How to Overcome Group Polarization

The effects of this phenomenon can be curtailed assembling a diverse group. Additionally, participants should not have already been indoctrinated to support a specific point of view. This can be done by including members of different age groups, ethnic backgrounds, and disciplines.

Can you think of any other real-life examples of group polarization? Tell us about it in the comment section below.

Picture Credits: YouTube

 

her-film

Psychodynamic Theory: Explanation with Examples

Ever wonder how you’ve become the person you are today? The truth lies in the concept of psychodynamic theory. Your past experiences, relationships, and influences have all contributed to your personality in some way or the other. In this post, we will discuss a number of psychodynamic theory examples to help you develop a better understanding of personality development from a psychological perspective.

 

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What is the Psychodynamic Theory of Personality?

The psychodynamic theory is a collection of different psychological theories that together contribute to the psychodynamic perspective. These theories mainly emphasize on how one’s individual personality is an amalgamation of early childhood experiences and unconscious desires and impulses. Famous theorists such as Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud and Alfred Alder have contributed to the psychodynamic theory.

 

Sigmund Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory

Sigmund Freud is among the most influential names in psychology. The Austrian neurologist is considered as the pioneers in the field of psychodynamics because of his extensive research.

Freud has also widely known for the wealth of work he has produced over the years. In his study, Freud categorized personality into three parts namely id, ego and superego.

According to Freud, a person is born with id – which drives us to fulfill our basic needs. The id can be inconsiderate, forcing one to run after their desires since it is fuelled by aggression.

However, as kids grow older, he or she develops the ego. Unlike id, ego is transfixed on the principle of reality and mediates between id and superego. The superego serves as a moral conscience which helps us differentiate between right and wrong.

 

Alfred Adler’s Inferiority and Birth Order

According to Alfred Adler’s theory, each one of us is born with a sense of inferiority. This is evidenced by how weak and fragile a newborn baby is. Adler believed that inferiority is an integral part of our personality. In fact, the very feeling of inferiority is what pushes us to become superior.

Alder also explained birth order and how older children may develop inferiority complex once they have a younger sibling. In this scenario, the middle child may feel more superior to their older sibling and consider themselves as healthy competition.

On the other hand, the youngest sibling is likely to feel the most helpless of the lot. Because of this, the younger child may develop a sense of inferiority that is quite similar to the sentiments of a newborn.

 

Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development

Erik Erikson is widely known for his theory of Psychosocial Development. In it, Erikson discussed eight stages of personality development starting from infant-hood to adulthood.

In each stage, the person experiences a certain challenge that helps mold him into the person he/she ought to become, thus contributing to personality development.

 

Psychodynamic Theory Examples

To help you gain a better idea, we’ve compiled a list of psychodynamic theory examples. The key concept to keep in mind here is that early childhood memories greatly contribute to the person we are today. Some examples include:

  1. Early childhood events may cause some people to develop a nail-biting habit
  2. A childhood incident that caused fear in the past may trigger anxiety in adulthood
  3. Behaviors such as obsessive handwashing are often linked to may be linked to childhood trauma in the past
  4. Skin picking and hair plucking are compulsions which may be linked to developmental trauma
  5. Feeling pangs of nervousness after completing certain tasks may be associated or linked to a childhood memory.
  6. A childhood experience that caused fear of an open space may lead to the development of agoraphobia in adults
  7. Number aversion is another obsessive behavior that is commonly associated with childhood development

Hopefully, you’ve enjoyed reading about psychodynamic theory examples. For more information, check out our psychology section. Happy learning!

 

mandela-effects-examples

10+ Mandela Effect Examples to Illustrate the Concept Better

We will use a number of Mandela Effect examples in this post to explain this truly bizarre concept. It occurs when a number of unconnected people, end up recalling a nonexistent event being identical to another. Or in other words, a type of false memory.

 

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What is the Mandela Effect?

The Mandela effect is a form of confabulation, a term that is used in psychiatry to describe memory disturbances. Though the internet term was described in 2010 by Fiona Broome, an internet enthusiast.

BigThink also has this to say regarding when the Mandela Effect became popular:

 

On December 5th, 2013, when President Mandela died, a large number of people around the world found themselves thinking they were sure he died much earlier, while in prison in the 1980s. These people found each other online and the Mandela Effect was born.

 

A lot of people, commonly strangers claim to have experienced a particular event, with specified details that does not exist in history, newspaper archives, or the history books.

It is very important to specify what the Mandela effect suggests, if it isn’t just a bizarre delusion. Essentially, it is an effect that does not have a cause. Well, how can there be a memory of something that never existed in the first place?

It goes against every perception we have about a clear memory that is recalled by us, which in reality does not exist. In fact, it is not even real or true in the first place.

 

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Mandela Effect Story

Simplifying it further, The Mandela effect is nothing but a disturbance of memory, known as confabulations produced by our unconscious minds leading to misinterpretations of the world or oneself.

The explanation of the Mandela effect can get frustrating. Although there are several Mandela effect examples to help explain things out a bit. Just like the story of Sinbad from a genie movie, who claimed to have seen Nelson Mandela’s funeral on TV before it even happened.

Or Leonardo Da Vinci’s painting, “The Last Supper”, which had goblets in it and many other just like that!

Serving as assertions, these Mandela effect examples are limited to our understandings about ourselves. Such claims can be very dangerous at times, but not necessarily false.

Since there aren’t many detailed discussions about them, they are proven to be delusions mostly, eventually collapsing.

 

Mandela Effect Explained!

If a person is detrimental towards keeping the things in the universe just the way it is, there is one valid explanation of the Mandela effect examples. Moreover, aliens are not a part of it.

A lot of people claim to be the abductees of aliens, showing image proof and films that never existed while being on board on an alien aircraft. Could this Mandela effect be memories on the aircraft that are suppressed, from the time when they were on board with the aliens?

While there are several extraterrestrial explanations proving these Mandela effect examples, they do not provide any cause to the effect. Making it a trap that is inevitably indefensible, lacking precision and evidence.

 

Mandela Effect Proof

These Mandela effect examples are living proof that it might and might not exist, so let us take a dip into these examples and see it all for ourselves.

 

Mandela Effect examples

Berenstain bears is Berenstein bears

One of the most cited Mandela effect examples which took off the internet and Reddit like a hurricane. A number of people remember the very famous book BerenstEin Bear for children, but in reality it is BerenstAin Bears. Shocking isn’t it?

 

Sex in the city is sex and the city

It might be very difficult to grasp the fact that the very famous classic show’s title is Sex and the City and not Sex in the City! Even the very religious followers of Carrie Bradshaw fail to remember it

 

Darth Vader

Admit it or not, but most of us have had our embarrassing Darth Vader moments. Uttering the famous words “Luke.. I am your father”, by cupping our mouths with our hands. While the actual wording is “No, I am your father”.

 

C-3PO

The very famous character of Star Wars has also been victimized by the Mandela effect. This lovable drone is a tad bit different from what we all remember it as. It is not all gold, but instead it has a leg made of silver.

 

Monopoly

Monopoly has been the core of fight and tension between families for centuries. Nevertheless, we picture the face of the character of the board game with a monocle. But in reality, Rich Uncle Penny bags has a 20/20 vision figure.

 

Mirror mirror on the wall is magic mirror on the wall

We all remember the famous phrase “mirror mirror on the wall” from our favorite Disney movie, and surprisingly, that has not been able to save itself from the Mandela effect either. This is one of the most shocking Mandela effect examples, for you must have never imagined that the phrase is “magic mirror on the wall” and not what you think it is.

 

ET

The bug eyed extraterrestrial character does not say “ET phone home”. He says “ET home phone”, and no matter how wrong it sounds, it is what it is.

 

Rubix is Rubick’s cube

Erno Rubik is the creator of Rubick’s cube, or let us just say Rubik’s cube? Basically the correct spelling most of us probably just realized!

 

The tip of Pickachu’s tail is not black!

Kids love Pikicahu and there is no way in hell they can be wrong about their favourite character. Unfortunately, they are or maybe they aren’t! They remember him as the character with a black tail, but if you look at him now, there is no such sign. It’s like it has vanished into thin air.

 

KitKat does not have a hyphen between the two words!

Everyone’s favorite crunchy chocolate wafer is not called Kit-Kat! It is KitKat, without the dash in between the two scrumptious sounding words!

 

Curious George does not and did not have a tail!

claiming to have seen a tail on curious George was all just a false assumption because in reality he is tail less. If you look at his recent pictures, you will realize what he actually looks like!

 

Chick Fil A!

The most delicious chicken in the whole wide world was never called “Chic Fil A” or “Chik Fil A”. It has always been Chick Fil A. It is astonishing how most of us did not know that, considering how commonly it is eaten.

questions-that-make-you-think

151+ Questions that Make You Think About Your Existence

Several decades have been spent by people wondering a lot of things, asking questions that make you think about your existence, and striving to get their answers by the Creator, or through observations, and thought-provoking meditation sessions.

The world evolved slowly and gradually, starting with something as small as the invention of fire, to the first man landing on the moon (and not Mars). Despite these tremendous achievements, each one of us still fails to understand the reason of our existence, giving us an existential crisis.

Understanding life is not in our thoughts compared to the first ever thinkers of civilized consciousness. Where did it all begin? Why are we even alive? Is there anything I am benefiting from on this planet? Am I supposed to give something back to humanity?

Such questions can be compared to a lot of stories from the past.

Just like the fictional “Wizard of Oz” journey, of a girl looking for a Wizard in order to get back home, later to realize that the world she had been living in, was a manifestation of her thoughts the entire time.

 

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Basically realizing what her existence in life was meant to be; there was a purpose to her life.

The deeper we let our thoughts go, we realize the fact that our existence does not only revolve around our daily living but goes deeper than that. It involves our own selves. And there is an answer to everyone’s soul searching effort.

Exploring such questions, make you think about your existence. They give rise to a concept that has constantly been attacked over the last several years by most philosophers and psychologists: the idea of existing.

Do we really exist? In the form of a real entity of our own self, or is it just a mental space in our minds.

Pondering over questions that makes us think about our existence, we all do that! Don’t we? Obviously if you are reading this post right now, you have definitely given it a thought.

Several questions intrigue our minds as to why we exist, and a few of the deep questions to ask are stated below.

 

Questions That Make You Think About Your Existence

A lot of us do not go on thinking about these questions that make you think about your existence every other day, we just carry on with our daily lives simply existing, doing our daily duties. But there will be some time in our lives when we will have a lot of deep questions in our heads, wanting to clear out. It happens when the core meaning of our lives is stripped away, due to some tragedies, atrocious disasters, losing our loved one or family, making us question our existence and confronting the destroyer.

 

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For instance, if you are a dentist and your duty is to serve those who suffer from a tooth ache, but at some point in life you are unable to do that. It will put you you in an existential crisis.

Why so? You are simply not skilled enough, or experienced enough to tackle the complicated situation. Or some colleague of yours is an expert in that, having the same background of knowledge makes you feel even worse.

You question your existence because you can’t do something everyone else can!

Consider a love affair! You are deeply inclined towards the person you love, seeking to start a family with your significant other. But later you discover that he or she had no sincere feelings for you.

That feeling of hopelessness would crush you from the inside, making you want to question life over and over, asking the Creator why you had to go through such a tragic betrayal. The same thing happens with those who define themselves and look for their deepest meanings in others, just like a parent would find their world in their child, only to see them set apart, move on with their lives in future.

 

Does life have a meaning? What is the essence of life?

Surely every individual has thought of this question in their lives. Mostly because they probably failed to understand the true meaning of their existence, which is not just going to work, eat and sleep. It has a meaning of its own, which would make you love your existence once you would realize it.

What is my identity? Who am I?

Who even am I? Somebody’s favorite eldest child, whose parents hope to be supported by financially one day? Or someone’s middle child who has no worth in the family, because his or her parents are too busy taking care of the youngest and polishing the eldest. Or are you that one lover who still has not been able to ask out that one girl he has had a crush on since kindergarten. Well, whether good or bad, your identity is what defines you and makes you who you are.

Am I serving the purpose of life? What is my purpose?

The main purpose of your life is to live and let live, spreading peace and happiness, no matter what comes your way. In short, if your life is miserable, don’t try to make it worse for others as well. Achieving that means you have served the purpose of your life.

What is death? Do I deserve the everlasting bliss of the afterlife?

Those who do not believe in the creation of the Lord might question life after death at several points, including death. Despite seeing their acquaintances, loved ones, and family lose their lives right in front of them. For them the world is everything. Maybe their everlasting bliss! While for some, the world is their hell, which makes them eagerly wait for the heaven they would get to live in after death.

How do I choose between the good and the bad?

At times when everything seems true, you don’t know whether you are making the right decision or going against it. In such situations, it haunts the individual till he is sure about the fact that his decisions would be in favor of the good and not the bad. Knowing that he was right, gives him a peace of mind about life.

Existential crisis give rise to deep conversations and while many of those questions do not have answers, they are simply just your thoughts and feelings put into words.

 

List of Facts &  Thought Provoking Questions that Make You Think About Your Existence

Here is a list of some other facts that make you ask deep questions and ponder over your existence:

  1. The day and night has been one of the few constant things on earth since the world began
  2. Our time is connected with the distance and the speed the earth revolves around the sun. How do we measure relevance to time on other planets? What about beyond our solar system?
  3. When we look up at the stars, are we really looking up, or are we facing an unknown direction in context of where we are in the universe? Our direction is relative to this earth.
  4. The “Space” is unfathomably large. It’s beyond our comprehension.
  5. The concept of God: He exists from an infite period, and will exist for an infinite period. Can you wrap your head around that?
  6. When kids start being born on other planets in the future, we’d have to add “Planet of Birth” to our identity documents as well
  7. At one point in time you were among the youngest of all beings on this world – that moment could have been lasted for a thousandth of a second
  8. We’re all in a queue to die. There will be a moment when it’s our turn, and and we might be busy in worldy affairs
  9. Humans from this earth, are technically considered “aliens” on the moon and Mars (or on other planets in the future)
  10. Imagine the impact of the choices a person’s makes. Every choice adds to the matrix of decision tree that that person has gone through in life. Now imagine the billions of people on this world, and how the decision matrix of one person coincides with everyone he or she cross or does not cross paths with. It’s mind boggling.
  11. When you’re watching a sunrise, someone on the other end of the world is enjoying a sun set
  12. If you keep digging a hold in your backyard, and never stop, one day you might reach the other end of the world in a different country.
  13. You have never been in the same physical place more than once, as the earth, solar system and our galaxy is constantly moving

 

135 More Deep Questions that Make You Think About Your Existence

S. No. Questions that Make You Think About Your Existence
1 Are you holding onto something that you need to let go of? What’s stopping you?
2 Can we have happiness without sadness?
3 Could you be persuaded to kill someone? If you answer no, how much money would it take to change your mind?”
4 Describe the greatest adventure of your life
5 Describe the next five years of your life, and your plans, in a single sentence
6 Do aliens exist?
7 Do we have a soul?
8 Do you ask enough questions, or are you happily settling for what you know already?
9 Do you consider yourself the hero or the villain in your story?
10 Do you make your own decisions, or let others make them for you?
11 Does nature shape our personalities more than nurture?
12 Does observation alter an event?
13 Does sound happen if nothing is present to hear it?
14 Does the Law of Attraction exist?
15 Does this person know how much they mean to you? When was the last time you told them?
16 How can people believe in truths without evidence?
17 How did the universe begin?
18 How do you apply the learning from this regret to your actions today?
19 How do you celebrate the things you do have in your life?
20 How do you know that your experience of consciousness is the same as other people’s experience of consciousness?
21 How do you spend the majority of your free time? Why?
22 How does gravity work?
23 How many people do you truly love? What are you doing for them?
24 How much control do you really have over yourself?
25 How should people live their lives?
26 How would you describe yourself in 5 words?
27 If everything evolved from amoebas, how does the world still have amoebas?
28 If karma was coming back to you, would it help or hurt you?
29 If lying is wrong, are white lies okay?
30 If money cannot buy happiness, can you ever be truly happy with no money?
31 If today was the last day of your life, what would you want to do?
32 If you could ask a single person one question, and they had to answer truthfully, who and what would you ask?
33 If you could ask for one wish, what would it be?
34 If you could choose just one thing to change about the world, what would it be?
35 If you could go back in time, once, and change a single thing – what would it be?
36 If you could send a message to the entire world, what would you say in 30 seconds?
37 If you could start over, what would you do differently?
38 If you could watch everything that happened in your life until now, would you enjoy it?
39 If you dropped everything to pursue your dreams, what would you be risking?
40 If you had a friend that you spoke to the same way you speak to yourself, how long do you think that person would allow you to be your friend?
41 If you had a year left to live, what would you achieve over the next 12 months?
42 If you had to teach someone one thing, what would you teach?
43 If you lost everything tomorrow, whose arms would you run into to make everything ok?
44 If you received enough money to never need to work again, what would you spend your time doing?
45 If you spend a day watching movies when you should be working a day wasted or well spent?
46 If your entire life was a movie, what title would best fit?
47 Is a “wrong” act okay if nobody ever knows about it?
48 Is a family still relevant in the modern world?
49 Is being open-minded a virtue, if it’s causing destructive ideas to spread throughout society?
50 Is it better to love and lose or never to love?
51 Is it easier to love or be loved?
52 Is it more important to be liked or respected?
53 Is it worse to fail at something or never attempt it in the first place?
54 Is life all a dream?
55 Is mind or matter more real?
56 Is there a supreme power?
57 Is trust more important than love?
58 Isn’t one person’s terrorist another person’s freedom fighter?
59 Should people care more about doing the right thing, or doing things right?
60 Standing at the gates of heaven, and God asks you “Why should I let you in?” What do you reply?
61 The structure of DNA appears to be intelligently designed, what are the implications?
62 There a reason to life?
63 To what extent do you shape your own destiny, and how much is down to fate?
64 What are numbers?
65 What are the chances you’ve passed up on that you regret?
66 What are the things that stand between you and complete happiness?
67 What are you looking forward to?
68 What can you do today that you couldn’t do a year ago? What will you be able to do at this time next year?
69 What defines you?
70 What did you want to be when you were a kid?
71 What did your life teach you yesterday?
72 What do people strive for after enlightenment?
73 What do you “owe” yourself?
74 What do you really love to do? Do you do it often? If you answer no, why not?
75 What do you want most out of life?
76 What drives you to do better at something?
77 What gets you excited and driven to achieve?
78 What happens after we die?
79 What have you done that you’re most proud to have achieved?
80 What have you done to pursue your dreams lately? How about today?
81 What have you done today to make someone’s life better?
82 What have you given up on?
83 What is beauty?
84 What is education?
85 What is freedom?
86 What is honor, and does it even matter anymore?
87 What is infinity?
88 What is intelligence?
89 What is reality?
90 What is the difference between living and existing?
91 What is the last thing that you’ve done that’s really worth remembering?
92 What is the truth?
93 What is time?
94 What is true happiness?
95 What is true love?
96 What is true strength?
97 What is your greatest strength?
98 What is your greatest weakness?
99 What makes a good friend?
100 What makes you smile?
101 What makes you special?
102 What makes you, you?
103 What one piece of advice would you offer to a newborn infant?
104 What role does honour play in today’s society?
105 What terrifies you the most?
106 What things hold you back from doing the things that you really want to?
107 What were you doing when you last lost track of the time?
108 What will happen at the end of the world?
109 What will people say at your funeral?
110 What would happen if you never wasted another minute of your life, what would that look like?
111 What would you change about your life if you knew you would never die?
112 What would you do differently if you knew that no one was judging you?
113 When did you last push the boundaries of your comfort zone?
114 When did you not speak up, when you know you really should have?
115 When does consciousness begin?
116 When it’s all said and done, will you have said more than you have done?
117 When was the last time you travelled somewhere new?
118 When was the last time you tried something new?
119 When you think of your home, what immediately comes to mind?
120 When you’re 90 years old, what will matter most to you in the world?
121 Where do thoughts come from?
122 Where does the soul live?
123 Where does the universe end?
124 Where is the line between insanity and creativity?
125 Where were people before they were born?
126 Where would you like to live? Why haven’t you moved?
127 Who are you really? Describe yourself without using your name, or any attributes given to you by society and really think. Deep down, who are you?
128 Who decides what morality is?
129 Who defines good and evil?
130 Whose life have you had the greatest impact on?
131 Why do people fear losing things that they do not even have yet?
132 Would you be a martyr and risk your reputation by standing up for what is right in front of your peers? Or is it better to be pragmatic and do nothing?
133 Would you break the law to save a loved one?
134 Would you rather have 10 years of excellent health, or 30 years of average health?
135 Would your life be better or worse, if you knew the time and place where you would die?